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View Article and Find Full Text PDF Vector transmission of a plant-pathogenic bacterium in Abraxane (Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension)- Multum Arsenophonus clade sharing ecological traits with facultative insect endosymbionts. The planthopper Pentastiridius leporinus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) is the major vector of a nonculturable plant-pathogenic gamma-3 proteobacterium associated with a disease of sugar beet called syndrome "basses richesses" (SBR).

The bacterium, here called SBR bacterium, belongs to the Arsenophonous clade, which includes mostly insect-associated facultative symbionts. Assays using field-collected planthopper nymphs and adults were carried out to investigate the interaction of SBR bacterium with the insect vector and its transmission to sugar beet. SBR bacterium was persistently transmitted by emerging adults. Root-feeding nymphs were able to inoculate SBR bacterium to sugar beet. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays on dissected planthopper internal organs revealed a high concentration of the bacterium within male and female reproductive organs and within female salivary glands.

SBR-like bacteria were observed through transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of different insect organs including ovaries, salivary glands, and guts with no evidence for cytological disorders. SBR bacterium seems to share common ecological traits of insect-transmitted plant pathogens and facultative insect endosymbionts suggesting it may have evolved primarily as an insect-associated bacterium.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF Characterization and evolution of two bacteriome-inhabiting symbionts in cixiid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Pentastirini). Epub 2009 Sep 16. Like other plant sap-sucking insects, science direct search within the family Cixiidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) host a diversified microbiota.

We report the identification and first molecular characterization Abraxane (Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension)- Multum symbiotic bacteria in cixiid planthoppers (tribe: Pentastirini). Using universal eubacterial primers we first screened the eubacterial 16S rRNA sequences in Pentastiridius leporinus (Linnaeus) with PCR amplification, cloning, and restriction fragment analysis.

We identified three main 16S rRNA sequences that corresponded to a Wolbachia bacterium, a plant pathogenic bacterium, and a Abraxane (Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension)- Multum gammaproteobacterial symbiont. A fourth bacterial species affiliated with 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' was detected in PCR assays using primers specific for the Bacteroidetes. Within females of two selected cixiid planthoppers, P.

Sulcia muelleri' and the novel gammaproteobacterial symbiont were housed in separate bacteriomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of these symbionts occurred in at least four insect genera within the tribe Pentastirini. Concentrations of viable phytoplasma extracts and latency in vectors were monitored by injection of healthy-reared E.

Based on kandee johnson preliminary results, insects were injected by using phytoplasma extracts that ensured the highest rate of FDP acquisition and transmission by E. Transmission into an artificial diet through a Parafilm membrane about 3 weeks after insect injection was attempted. FDP-injected insects that belonged to 15 hemipteran species were confined in cages and fed through the membrane for a 4- to 5-day inoculation access period.

FDP DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the feeding buffer fed upon by Anoplotettix fuscovenosus, Aphrodes makarovi,E. PCR amplification with specific primers detected FDP DNA in injected insects of all test insect species. Band intensity was positively correlated with the transmissibility of FDP. Transmission of FDP to plants by feeding was confirmed for Anoplotettix fuscovenosus, E.

Our results suggest that vector competency of FDP is restricted to specimens belonging to the family Cicadellidae, subfamily Deltocephalinae. It mainly is associated with an uncultivable phloem-restricted bacterium-like organism (BLO) called SBR BLO. Transmission tests showed that field-collected Pentastiridius sp.

In the present work, sequences of a 1,507-bp 16S ribosomal (r)DNA fragment of SBR BLO were amplified from DNA extracts of SBR-affected field sugar beet plants, of field-collected Pentastiridius sp. The sequences showed total identity, confirming the role of SBR BLO in the etiology of SBR and the vector role of Pentastiridius sp. Nucl instr meth surveys on SBR-affected sugar beet plants Abraxane (Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension)- Multum Pentastiridius sp.

Furthermore, shares bayer of 16S rDNA sequences permitted the identification exotic animals the SBR BLO as a new plant-pathogenic gamma-3 proteobacteria different from 'Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae,' another BLO responsible for marginal chlorosis disease of strawberry in France.

Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the SBR bacterium and several Abraxane (Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension)- Multum described as endosymbionts of hemipteran insects. View Article and Find Full Text PDF Insect Vectors (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) and Pathogens Associated with the Disease Syndrome "Basses Richesses" of Sugar Beet in France.

Three planthopper (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) species were found to live Abraxane (Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension)- Multum and within sugar beet fields in eastern France: Cixius wagneri, Hyalesthes obsoletus, and Pentastiridius leporinus. The role of these planthoppers in spreading the two pathogens to sugar beet was studied. Based on its abundance and high frequency of infection with the SBR bacterium, Abraxane (Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension)- Multum. In transmission assays, only the bindweed phytoplasma isolate was transmissible to and pathogenic on sugar beet.

When compared with controls, the bindweed stolbur phytoplasma and SBR bacterium similarly reduced the biomass of sugar beet plants, but the phytoplasma caused greater reductions in taproot biomass and sugar content than the SBR bacterium. View Article and Find Full Text PDF Effect of Benzothiadiazole on Transmission of X-Disease Phytoplasma by the Vector Colladonus montanus to Arabidopsis thaliana, a New Experimental Host Plant. Colladonus montanus (Van Duzee), a leafhopper vector of X-disease phytoplasma (Xp), efficiently transmitted the pathogen to Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia wild type.

During transmission trials, the phytoplasma Abraxane (Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension)- Multum inoculated into 22- 34- and 40-day-old plants.

Phytoplasma infections were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for X Symptoms in X-positive A. All symptom-free plants were PCR negative. Leafhopper nymphs free of X that fed on diseased A. Foliar spray applications of the plant resistance elicitor benzothiadiazole (BTH) to Compound. Vector leafhoppers survival was significantly reduced on BTH-treated A.

Epub 2005 Apr 7. Late instar nymphs were exposed to one or the other of two strains of FDP (FD92 and FD2000) by feeding on infected broad bean (Vicia faba L. Detection of FDP in individual insects was done with K ject assays and revealed that almost all exposed leafhoppers had acquired FDP, for both FD92 and FD2000 strains. FDP infection significantly reduced the life span of males and females (ANOVA of the quartiles of survival distribution and Weibull scale parameter).

FDP-exposed females produced significantly fewer nymphs. The two FDP strains had similar effects on reduction of survival and fecundity of leafhoppers. There was no significant differences in longevity of E.

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