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These habitats attract conservation attention because they are localized (sensu Bergquist et Adenoscan (Adenosine Injection)- FDA. The foundation species in these communities are very long-lived, even compared to other deep-sea fauna (McClain et al.

The infaunal and mobile fauna that live on the periphery of these sites are also distinct from the fauna in Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum background deep sea, both in terms of diversity and abundance (Demopoulos et al. There are many other deep-sea habitats that would also fit the EBSA criteria. These are typically biogenic habitats, where one or several key species (ecosystem engineers) create habitat for other species.

Examples of these include sponges (Klitgaard and Scopus author search scopus author preview, 2004), xenophyophores (Levin, 1991), tube-forming protists (De Leo et al.

Furthermore, areas of brine seepage, particularly brine basins, may not contain abundant hard substrata, but still Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum distinct and diverse microbial communities, as well as megafaunal communities (e.

For spatial management of these sensitive areas to be effective, information on the israel distribution of features of conservation interest is essential. Mapping these features can be particularly challenging in Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum deep sea, but advances in technology are improving our ability to identify and locate them (e. Even modest occurrences of deep-water corals can be mapped Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum both low and high frequency sidescan sonar in settings with relatively low background topography (e.

Hexactinellid aggregations (sponge beds) with extensive spicule mats (see e. In some cases, seep environments can also be detected via water-column bubble plumes or surface ocean slicks (Ziervogel et al. Relevant oceanographic and lf roche posay datasets can be obtained from local field measurements, global satellite measurements, and compilations from world ocean datasets (Georgian et al. Point source biological observations are best determined from direct seabed sampling and visual observation (Georgian et al.

Additional data can be derived from historical data (e. However, these data must be interpreted with caution as they may include dead and possibly displaced organisms (i. This is often best achieved via visual imaging surveys (towed camera, autonomous underwater vehicles, ROVs, manned submersible), which are typically non-destructive and provide valuable data on both biological and environmental characteristics (Georgian et al.

Collection of reference physical specimens is also highly desirable in providing accurate taxonomic identifications of key taxa (Bullimore et al. Together, mapping through remote sensing, habitat suitability Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum, and ground-truthing by seafloor observations and collections provide adequate maps of ecological features to better inform the trade-offs between conservation and economic interests Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum advance of exploration or extraction activities (Mariano and La Rovere, 2007).

Areas requiring spatial management may be formally designated as MPAs through executive declarations and legislative processes, or established as a by-product of mandated avoidance rules (Table 1).

In the UK, these come in the form of Designations as Special Areas of Conservation, Nature Conservation Marine Protected Areas, or Marine Conservation Zones. In the US, these are in the form of National Monuments (Presidential executive order), National Marine Sanctuaries (congressional designation), fisheries management areas such as Habitat Areas of Particular Concern, or, in the case of the oil and gas industry, through Notices to Lessees issued by the U.

Bureau of Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum Energy Management (BOEM). In Canada, they are Marine Protected Areas, Marine Parks, Areas of Interest or Sensitive Benthic Areas. In Colombia, MPAs are included in the National Natural Parks System, in Regional Districts of Integrated Management, or as Regional Natural Parks. In many jurisdictions, systems of MPAs are still under development, and oil and gas exploration and development is permitted within these areas.

It remains uncommon for setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified. The formal designation process for MPAs varies greatly among EEZs. Fundamentally, a firm, widespread systematic conservation plan (sensu Margules and Pressey, 2000) in the deep sea will be critical in creating MPAs that are representative and effective (Kark et al.

They can also be networks of smaller areas that may serve as stepping stones across the seascape. There have been numerous reviews of the theory behind these various designs Hydrocodone and Ibuprofen (Vicoprofen)- FDA. Even when the formal MPA designation process is followed, oil and gas industrial activity may still be permissible, although their proximity typically triggers additional scrutiny of development plans (Table edn iii. Examples of wells that have been drilled near some important marine protected areas include the Palta-1 well Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum the Ningaloo reef in Australia and drilling and production in the Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum Gardens National Marine Sanctuary in the U.

In some cases, MPAs may not be formally declared, but sensitive habitats are explicitly avoided during field operations as part of the lease conditions. For example, in Norway, exploration drilling has occurred near the Pockmark-reefs in the Kristin oil field and the reefs of the Morvin oil field (Ofstad et al. Direct physical damage was limited by ensuring the well location and anchoring points (including chains) were not near the known coral locations.

Similarly, in Brazil, impacts to deep-water corals must be avoided, and ROV surveys of proposed tracklines for anchors are typically conducted before or after installation. Despite the requirements of many jurisdictions to avoid deep-water petroleum activities near sensitive habitats, it remains uncommon for legally mandated setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified.

For example, there are no mandated separation distances of industry infrastructure and deep-water corals for both the Brazilian and Norwegian case studies, rather the need for spatial restrictions is evaluated on a case-by-case basis as part of the environmental impact assessment process.

BOEM has taken a precautionary approach and defined mitigation areas in which oil and gas activity is prohibited. These areas are determined from interpretation of seismic survey data. Previous studies have demonstrated that these seismic data can reliably predict the presence of chemosynthetic and deep-water coral communities (Roberts et al. Regulations are issued in the form of a Notice to Lessees (NTL) issued by the US BOEM.

ROV surveys of the tracklines of anchors are typically conducted, but can occur after the installation of the infrastructure if the plan is approved. However, if the Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum is drilled near a known high-density community or archeological site, then visual surveys are mandatory prior to installation.

If the ROV surveys reveal high-density chemosynthetic or coral communities, the operator is required to report their occurrence and submit copies of the images to BOEM for review. Avoidance measures have to be undertaken for all potential and known high-density benthic communities identified during these assessments. Beyond the borders of the BOEM mitigation areas, there are mandated set-back distances for oil and gas infrastructure in US territorial waters.

These distances are primarily based on a contracted study of impacts from deep-water structures (CSA, 2006). The set-back distance for sea-surface discharges of drilling muds and cuttings was originally 305 m, corresponding 597 the average distance over which impacts were detected in the CSA (2006) study. Following more recent discoveries of abundant deep-water coral communities in and near the hard-ground sites within the mitigation areas, the set-back distance was doubled to 610 m (2000 feet).

The set-back distance for the placement of anchors and other seafloor infrastructure is 150 m (500 feet) from the mitigation areas, but this Cutivate Lotion (Fluticasone Propionate Lotion)- Multum be reduced to 75 m (250 feet) if a waiver is requested. In addition to specific targets for avoidance or establishment of protected areas, the use of reference areas can also assist in spatial management, and in the testing of EIA predictions more generally. Comparison of reference sites with those proximal to industry operations allows the effects of drilling and routine operations to be assessed, properly attribute any changes in the ecological communities, and further inform spatial management practice (Iversen et al.

Some real-time monitoring and responsive action has also been undertaken in the benthic environment.

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