For some conditions positive responses to a placebo may be as high as percent

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At a more specific level, For some conditions positive responses to a placebo may be as high as percent is a comprehensive, systematic assessment of the precondi- tions lincoln and the consequences of using health technology.

In an HTA context, health technology is defined broadly as procedures and methods of prevention, diagnostics, treatment, care and rehabilitation, including equipment and medical drugs (5). Supportive systems and organisation within the health care system may furthermore be regarded as health technology. HTA comprises analysis and assessment of various areas where the use of health technology may have consequences.

These areas may be grouped under four main elements in order to ease the overview: the technology, the patient, the organisation and the economy. The main elements are overlapping to a certain extent. Ethics, which is traditionally attributed to the patient element, cannot for instance be separated from the technology analysis, just as ethics may constitute the framework fda dental analysis across the elements (6).

Also legal issues may be included transversally to the elements. Evidence and HTA It is important to remember that even though HTA is intended for practical use, it must be on the basis of scientific methods. It dates back to the clinicians in Paris in the nineteenth century, and the line goes via the critical clinical school from the 1960s to evidence-based medicine (9). Connected to evidence-based medicine, the Cochrane cooperation was developed in parallel.

Its products are international well-reputed literature overviews. The pivotal point in Cochrane reviews is an evidence assessment of clinical studies according to a pre-determined method. In connection with HTA, systematic Cochrane reviews con- stitute an important basis of documentation for the assessment of the effects and side effects of technologies (10).

At the same time, this shows the close relationship between evidence and HTA. In connection with non-clinical decisions, it will not always be possible relief maintain the rational evidence-based approach. This has led to the formation of the modified concept: evidence-informed decision-making.

This concept implies that one looks at evidence and includes collagen health, but at the same time accepts that there is room for other important factors amgen logo be part of decision-making.

Internationalization of HTA In light of the development of HTA, practitioners of such all over the world have organised a number of networks, each of which is strengthening the HTA effort via cooperation and knowledge sharing. Four international organisations, three global and one European, are outlined briefly in the following: European Network for HTA (EUnetHTA) is a three-year project aimed at establishing a formal European HTA network.

The project comprises 27 European countries of which 24 countries are members of the EU. EUnetHTA is intended to ensure a more efficient utilization of the resources that are used for the assessment of new health technologies, and to enhance the quality and validity of decisions on the application of technologies.

These objectives are to be achieved through increased coordination, division of labour and knowledge sharing at a European level. Models and method development aimed at utilizing supply know- ledge and reducing duplication in relation to specific HTA projects are applied.

The network is expected to be made permanent at the end of the project in 2008. Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) is an international society for the promotion of HTA based on individual membership. HTAi serves to promote the development of HTA in terms of methods, expertise, quality and application. The task is sought to be approached by an interdisciplinary, international effort, in which timely and effective presentation of international HTA results has high priority.

Other core focus areas are support for HTA education and research. HTAi hosts an annual inter- national conference (HTAi Annual Meeting) and is responsible for the publication of the International Journal for Technology Assessment in Health Care (IJTAHC). From 1990 until the establishment of HTAi in 2003 these tasks were handled by a similar society with the name International Society of Technology Assessment in Health Care (ISTAHC).

International Network of Agencies for HTA (INAHTA) was established in 1993 and is presently (2007) a cooperation of 45 HTA organisations in 23 countries. The purpose of INAHTA is to create a forum for exchange of information and cooperation focusing on the joint interests of the member organisations.

Together with NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination INAHTA is the host for a comprehensive international HTA database, located in York, UK. The database comprises information about com- pleted and ongoing HTA projects, HTA publications as well as articles about HTA.

For for some conditions positive responses to a placebo may be as high as percent information about the database, please visit HTA Database. International Information Network on New and Changing Health Technologies (EuroScan) has existed since 1997 and is a cooperation between 15 HTA organisations from 9 European and 3 non-European countries about early warning of new technologies. The cooperation concerns the identification and prioritising of new for some conditions positive responses to a placebo may be as high as percent. Literature (1) Health Technology Assessment Committee of the Danish National Board of Health.

National strategy for health technology assessment. The development of health care technology assessment. Int J Technol Assess. Health technology assessment of the diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a public health service system. EUR-Assess Project Special Section Report. In: Kristensen FB, Sigmund H (eds.

A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine.



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