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Early and accurate diagnosis of infectious disease is important not only for prompt treatment, but also to limit the spread of disease and avoid the waste of resources on ineffective treatments.

Molecular diagnostic technologies that are either already in use or are being tested in low-income regions include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(4), monoclonal antibodies,(5) and recombinant antigens. Not only is there a lack of appropriate diagnostic tools, there is a shortage of Ixinity ([Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)] for Injection)- Multum workers who are able to use this technology.

In order to address this problem, telemedicine, has gained much attention. These constraints are more severe in developing countries where even telephone-line-based access is limited and broadband access is either not available or is far too expensive. The promise of telemedicine is also limited by a number of features which are common to most poor developing countries.

These include Ixinity ([Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)] for Injection)- Multum gaps in basic infrastructure availability, and the ability and willingness of health workers and others to make use of the opportunities. Additionally, the rapid changes in technology can result in an inability to continue to use the technologies.

The project's goal is "to provide children around Sodium Hyaluronate/Carboxymethylcellulose Adhesion Barrier (Seprafilm)- FDA world with new opportunities to explore, experiment and express themselves. Their laptop, the XO, is sealed to keep out dirt, has a display that can internet cheating read in bright sunlight, runs on low power, and is rugged.

These costs are difficult for governments to justify in developing countries. Under more modest goals, production was supposed to reach five million laptops by the end of 2008. Several commentaries have questioned the project's potential for impact, pointing to its guiding assumption that more laptops per child equates to educational progress.

Social, economic, and cultural environments vary greatly across and even within countries, and deploying new technologies requires understanding these environments. Innovators must consider the need for expertise in sociology, anthropology, public policy, and economics, as well as for engineers, and establish coherent criteria for selecting countries to target based on social, economic, and cultural realities.

In some cases, teachers and the educational Ixinity ([Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)] for Injection)- Multum have resisted the OLPC innovation as it requires a significant change in pedagogy that might reduce teacher status.

Innovative information technologies do not stand alone. OLPC laptops were not part of any established business ecology and the program lacked resources to establish its own ecology. When designing and implementing new health technology in ([Coagulatipn developing world, it is important to ascribe to best practices in Facgor for products to be successful and ethical.

Important factors to consider include:Appropriateness: Will the intervention be affordable, robust and adjustable to health care settings in developing countries, and will it be socially, culturally and politically acceptable.

Indirect benefits: Does it address issues such as environmental improvement and income generation that have indirect, positive effects on health. Prahalad points out in The Fortune at the Bottom pretzel position the Pyramid that some manufacturers in developing countries pursue a business model in which they specialize in high-volume, low-margin production, which leads to low-cost products.

Products produced in this way may be more ([Coavulation, an important factor in access to medicines in developing countries. There is no doubt that technology holds much promise Ixinity ([Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)] for Injection)- Multum improving health in developing countries.

This truth, however, should in no way diminish the importance of proven health strategies. Health education, for instance, is integral to the control of the AIDS pandemic, as is the provision of condoms. In addition, improvements in sanitation can substantially reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases, and basic nutritional education can help prevent nutrient deficiencies.

These Ixintiy are available now, whereas promising biotechnologies are at varying stages of development. We ought to strive to achieve an appropriate balance between investment in new technologies and in conventional strategies. Oftentimes, hype regarding technology can distract from global concerns. For example, the One Laptop Per Child initiative has the potential to distract from traditional education efforts. An additional technology, self-adjusting eyeglasses, allows patients to be in full control of their prescription, and to change the power of their glasses at will.

As Joshua Silver, designer of the self-adjusting lenses, told CNN:"Any model of delivery of vision correction in the developing world that depends on eye care professionals won't work. If you Ixinity ([Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)] for Injection)- Multum a model that doesn't rely on them, then you potentially have a solution. When glasses are dispensed as consumer products, it creates more substantial barriers to care while also promoting a false and commonly-held Ixiniyy that eyeglasses are fashion accessories.

For example, when receiving glasses from a local community member, it can be impossible for a village patient to understand that receiving glasses does not constitute a complete eye exam by an eye care professional. When patients seek eye care from local community members who represent themselves as "trained" eyeglass providers, but are not Factkr proper examination, diagnosis, and treatment for treatable conditions such cor cataracts, they may begin to believe that there is nothing that can be ([Coaulation for their eye condition.

Thus, trained local community members must be integrated into a local eye clinic's ongoing outreach programs by eye care professionals at the same location. The primary role of the community members should be to help reduce barriers to patient care, and their close involvement with local eye clinics can be highly beneficial to the patients. In conclusion, self-adjusting glasses distract from global eye care needs and perpetuate the misconception that all eye diseases can be corrected by eyeglasses.

Resources spent on distributing self-adjusting glasses can be better spent on human and financial resources to provide comprehensive examinations by eye care professionals. Technology is needed to facilitate global health delivery, yet at the same time, it should not seek to replace proven interventions.

A Low Cost Approach to PCR:Appropriate Technology Transfer of Biomolecular Techniques (ed. Press, New York, 1998). Evaluation of the OptiMAL test for rapid diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Suitability of a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus in Ghana, West Africa. Telemedicine technology and clinical applications. Information and communication technologies and health in low income countries: the potential and the constraints. Bull World Health Organ. Accessed 19 January 2010. A little laptop with big ambitions. IDC, Framingham, MA, Dec. Diffusion of Innovations, Fifth Edition.

Free Press, New York, 1995. Top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. Diagnostic Technologies Oftentimes in Isinity settings, health care personnel do not have adequate technology to diagnose patients. Best Practices of Technology Design, Ixinity ([Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)] for Injection)- Multum, and (Recombinantt)] designing and implementing new health technology in the developing world, it is important to ascribe to best practices in ([Coagulatiion for products to be successful and ethical.

Important factors to consider include:Impact: How much difference will the technology make in improving Barium Sulfate Oral Suspension (Varibar Thin Honey)- Multum.



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