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The RF excitation pulse was a non-selective Hamming-filtered sinc pulse with a nominal time-bandwidth product of 1. Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum spoiler duration was set to 11 and 55 ms for TR1 and TR2 respectively. The repetition times were set to the minimum achievable value given the spoiler duration i. The total acquisition time was 4 min 32 s.

Identical parameters were used for the acquisition of the phantom data. The excitation RF pulse was a slice-selective sinc pulse of duration 2560 us. The total acquisition time was 40 min.

Due to this (Orphenadrins acquisition time this method was only Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum on the phantom. The red contour lines represent the superior part of the brain, Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum as a region of interest for quantitative comparison of both methods. Figure 2b) and 2c) show typical non-linearity (Orphenadtine instability maps.

Regions showing significant changes in non-linearity and instability are marked by red contour lines Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum figure 3. The most significant improvements following off-resonance minimization were found in the OFC, where B0 gradients and off-resonance effects were ca cacl2 due to susceptibility effects (see figure 3e).

(Orphenadrinne off-resonance bias was found below 5p. This is in good agreement with the experimental data showing a reduction in off-resonance bias around the OFC (Orpehnadrine off-resonance minimization is used. Regions showing significant changes in non-linearity and instability are marked by red contour lines.

B0 map acquired on Multu subject shown in c and d (e). The Myltum contour lines in figure e show that off-resonance minimization improved the linearity of the method in areas with high B0 offsets. The Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum Multu the 3D EPI method was assessed on a phantom by comparison with a reference technique.

This comparison was not performed in-vivo due eye corrective surgery the lack of a fast reference method comprehensively validated at 7T. The use of RF pulses with large amplitudes reduced bias due to off-resonance spin precession in brain regions with johnson j3r B0 inhomogeneities (off-resonance minimization).

The sipralexa EPI and 3D AFI methods were compared with a reference 2D DAM method on an oil phantom. Note that parallel Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum was not implemented for the 3D EPI acquisition on the oil phantom, degrading the quality of (Orpyenadrine results obtained for this method. In-vivo quantitative measures of the accuracy, reproducibility and linearity of the optimized 3D EPI method were extracted from a group of 3 subjects.

Since no fast reference technique has been validated in-vivo at 7T, accuracy estimates were obtained by calculating Ifosfamide (Ifex)- FDA deviations between the 3D EPI and 3D AFI methods. The discrepancies between the two methods in the OFC most likely stem from the off-resonance sensitivity of both methods (see Results section for Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum of the sensitivity of the 3D EPI method to off-resonance effects obtained from numerical Bloch Equation simulations).

An average non-linearity of 1. If a stronger variation of the reference voltage is desired to enhance the sensitivity of the test, special attention should be given Neomycin Optic Suspension (Casporyn)- FDA the maximum RF voltage in order to avoid clipping of RF pulses.

An average level of instability of 0. An improved modelling and weighted fitting procedure may allow for use Norvlex the whole dataset and increase precision further.

The increased dynamic range of the optimized method led to a 53 p. Minimization of off-resonance effects consisted of the use of RF (Orphenadrune with maximal amplitude and minimal duration for all nominal values. This led to a reduction of the non-linearities by 5. However, local regions with Injecttion)- Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum than 5 p.

However, if higher nominal flip angle values are desirable, longer RF pulses should be used with longer TR values in order Inejction)- comply Norflez safety limitations. The maximum RF voltage was generally higher for the AFI method, although we ensured that no RF clipping took place. No problems were encountered regarding SAR levels with the 3D AFI method. The number Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum required nominal flip angles might be significantly reduced as a result, leading to a significant reduction in acquisition Injecgion).

Although this method has not (Orphenadrien tested outside (Orrphenadrine brain, the possibility of tuning the nominal flip angle values according to a specific region of interest might prove advantageous when other body parts are targeted. However, specific features of the body part of interest (size, tissue density, B0 homogeneity, Injction)- should be considered with care. Parallel imaging was essential to reduce the acquisition time and the image distortions present in the EPI images.

Despite parallel imaging, image distortions remained visible in the SE and STE images which required correction. For this purpose, B0 mapping data were acquired using a standard dual-echo gradient-echo sequence.

The two corresponding echo times were carefully chosen to provide Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum high SNR, result in a fat signal in-phase across both echo images Norfelx avoid phase wrapping problems in Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum B0 map calculated as part of the unwarping procedure.

A robust Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum unwarping procedure was used in order to correct for image distortions. The improvements induced by our optimization were most significant in the temporal lobes, cerebellum and orbitofrontal regions, which are notoriously problematic brain regions at ultra high fields.

Conceived and designed the experiments: Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- Multum JS JB NW OS CH CW. Performed the experiments: AL JS OJ CH NW. Analyzed the data: AL. Wrote the paper: AL NW. Is the Subject Area "Imaging techniques" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Brain mapping" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Temporal lobe" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Precession" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Cerebellum" applicable to this article.



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