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The sample consists of 19,341 individuals in ex-USSR countries in 2016. It Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum that Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum grandchildren of enemies are more likely to have a college education. The bar charts on the left show the share of mothers and fathers, or the children of enemies of the people, with at least some college education.

All Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum charts are generated using sample survey weights. Selpercatinib Capsules (Retevmo)- FDA Source: Life in Transition Survey 2016. A famous Russian stand-up comedian, Ruslan Bely, also explains in an interview how the descendants of enemies of the people are different. He explains why, Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum tours that took him to all corners of the country, Magadan is his third favourite city.

Therefore, from the point of view of human resources, it turned out to be a very cool city". To investigate whether the resettlement of enemies of the people translated into better local development outcomes in the Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum run, we dived into the State Archive of the Russian Federation in Moscow and collected data on the type of crimes committed by Gulag prisoners, allowing us to measure the share of enemies of the people in each of the 79 camps in Russia in 1952, at the end and peak of the Gulag.

We then matched the location of camps to nearby firms using a dataset covering the universe of Russian firms in 2018, SPARK-Interfax. In our paper, we show that in 2018, among firms located within a 30km radius of former Gulags, those near camps which were populated by a higher share of enemies of the people pay higher wages and make higher profits per employee. Figure 3 shows how this effect is also captured by night lights per capita, a proxy for economic development (Henderson et al.

Notes: The scatter Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum the relationship between the share of Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum in camps Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum 1952 and night lights per capita within 30 km of camps in 2015.

Each circle is a 30km-radius area around a camp, and the size of the circles is proportional to the camp's prisoner population. Areas near camps with a higher share of enemies have brighter night lights per capita in 2015. The data on Gulags is from the State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) and the data on night lights is from the DMSP-OLS satellite program and made available by the Earth Observation Group and the NOAA National Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum Data Center.

The data on population is from the grided population of the world from SEDAC. We also show that neither economic activities in Gulags nor favourable geographic attributes predict the share of enemies of the people across camps, suggesting that the effect is driven by the enemies of the people themselves.

Indeed, enemies of the people might have been allocated to more productive regions with better soil, to Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum closer to productive cities with skilled labour, Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum to skill-intensive or capital-intensive activities, clear johnson predicting long-run prosperity. The data suggests this is not the case, and so does the historical narrative. The political motives for the Terror took absolute priority over economic ones.

The role hpv 18 16 human capital Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum fostering growth is at the core of economics research, yet this effect furosemide been hard to Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum across locations.

Many of the latest contributions rely on historical natural experiments. Droller (2018) shows antidepressants European settlers raised literacy rates and helped industrialisation in Argentinean counties. Hornung (2014) shows that in late 17th century Prussia, textile firms in areas receiving skilled Huguenots from Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum experienced increased productivity.

Our paper contributes to this literature on the long-run effect of educated migrants not only by bringing to light the case of the enemies of the people, but also by providing a natural experiment whereby educated migrants did not self-select into migration but were rather Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum resettled across locations in a quasi-random way.

We argue that the education transferred from forcedly displaced enemies of the people to their children and grandchildren partly explains prosperity across localities of Russia.

Our paper can be seen as a natural experiment that identifies the long-run persistence of higher education and its effects on long-run prosperity. Sadly, it also highlights how atrocious acts by mad individuals can shape the development path of localities over many generations. Cohen, S F (1983), Social Dimensions of De-Stalinization, 1953-64, Final Report to National Council for Soviet and Parnate (Tranylcypromine)- Multum European Research.

Henderson, J V, A Jelly k y, and D N. Khlevnyuk, O (2004), The History of the Gulag: From Collectivization to the Great Terror Annals of Communism, Yale University Press. Rocha, R, C Ferraz, and R R. Solzhenitsyn, A (1973), The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-56: An Experiment in Literary Investigation. Updated version available here. Figure 1 Camps and prisoner numbers in the Soviet Gulag system Notes: The circles are proportional to the prisoner population of camps.

Figure 2 The descendants of enemies of the people are more educated, and so are their parents Notes: The right bar chart shows the share of individuals with at least some college education among individuals who identify as the grandchildren of enemies of the people, and compares it to that among others.

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