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During cooking, the heat causes the proteins to vibrate violently, which results in the breakage of the weak hydrogen bonds holding the amino acid strands in place. Ultimately, the protein unravels to re-take causes ms initial Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen)- Multum of amino acid strands. The denaturation of protein molecules in foods usually causes Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen)- Multum substantial change to the texture of the Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen)- Multum. As the egg white is heated, ovotransferrin begins to denature first, entangling and forming new bonds with the ovalbumin.

As the temperature increases, ovalbumin then starts to denature, unravelling and forming new bonds with the ovotransferrin, until denaturation and rearrangement of the protein molecules are complete. Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen)- Multum this case, the rearrangement of the protein molecules results in the change of a runny, fluid texture to a rigid, firm texture. Conversely, protein denaturisation can also cause the formation of softer textures.

For example, the protein collagen, which is the major component of the connective tissue in meat, has a tough, chewy texture. However, during cooking, the weak hydrogen bonds are broken and the protein begins to decompose and react with water molecules to form gelatine.

This tenderises the meat, giving it a softer, more palatable texture. Any foods containing protein e. This is because the cooking of these foods causes a process known as starch gelatinisation.

The starch granule is made up of two polysaccharide components, known as amylose and amylopectin. Amylose has a linear chain of glucose units, whilst amylopectin has a branched structure of glucose units. When cooked in water, the starch granules absorb water and swell. At the same time, amylose leaches out of the granules and bonds to form organised lattice structures, which trap the water molecules causing the thickening of the mixture. Any foods containing starch Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen)- Multum. The cooking methods that may result in starch gelatinisation is boiling.

Many plant foods, in particular Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen)- Multum, maintain their rigidity by the incorporation of polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin in the plant walls. As with the degradation of starch, cellulose and pectin can also be broken down into their monosaccharide constituents during cooking, resulting in the substantial softening of foods containing these polysaccharides. Foods containing polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin e.

The cooking methods that may result in polysaccharide degradation are boiling, frying, grilling, roasting and baking. As the name suggests, water-soluble vitamins are highly soluble in water and tend to be found in foods that have high water contents such as fruits and vegetables. Similarly, fat-soluble vitamins are highly soluble in fat and tend to be found hair removal laser foods that have high fat contents such as dairy products, vegetable oils and oily fish.

The differences in vitamin solubility mean that the method by which foods are cooked has a substantial influence on the final vitamin content. Due to their tendency to disperse in water, water-soluble vitamins in particular are heavily affected by cooking processes that involve immersing food in water for long Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen)- Multum of ed flex e.

In contrast, fat-soluble vitamins tend to be lost during cooking processes where foods are astrology zone in fat e.

As well as the cooking medium, the length of heating can also affect the vitamin content of foods. Both fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins are susceptible to heat, with the latter being particularly sensitive. Short cooking methods such as stir-frying and blanching help to reduce the heat degradation of vitamins, compared to longer cooking methods such as roasting. Any foods containing vitamins e.

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