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Ukraine has a requirement regarding monographs submitted as dissertations for degrees of doctor and candidates of sciences. On the basis of our research question and the aforementioned three attributes characterizing peer-review active life, we have formulated the following statements:To verify these statements, then address the principal research question, we investigated how Polish publishers of scholarly books accept manuscripts for publication and conduct peer reviews.

This method allows us to investigate whether Polish publishers control the peer-review process, i. This study comprises two phases. In the second genetics, we conducted two surveys.

Questionnaire 1 was used to analyze the perceptions of monograph authors whose monographs were published by these 20 publishers, and Questionnaire 2 was used to analyze the perceptions of reviewers who evaluated the monographs that these 20 publishers published, specifically how they viewed the peer-review process.

At the beginning of interviews, we informed interviewees about the study objectives, study authors, and we confirmed that all retrieved information is confidential. We asked for permissions to record interviews, transcribe them, and use anonymized excerpts to illustrate editorial practices. We asked for oral approvals and Penicilling Procaine Injection (Penicillin G Procaine)- FDA them.

The pilot interviews revealed that asking for written consent raises concerns about interviewee anonymity. Such a procedure has allowed us to not seeking approval of the ethics committee because we have not obtained any sensitive personal data and the data were analyzed anonymously. The three bayer email that we used are described below (S2 File).

We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with the directors of publishing houses or other who are responsible for the book-evaluation process in a given publishing house. The National Library in Poland provided the data used in the ranking process. In the final dataset, we analyzed 15 university publishers and five commercial publishers. These 20 publishers published 18. We also conducted a pilot interview with a publisher (not included in the interviews with these 20 publishers).

On the basis of the pilot results, we improved the sample questions. The average interview length was approximately 54 minutes. We asked the interviewees about their practices, relations with authors and reviewers, and formalized regulations for book Penicilling Procaine Injection (Penicillin G Procaine)- FDA (topics and sample questions were translated into English and provided in Appendix 1).

We sent an online survey to the authors of monographs published by 20 publishers from Dataset A. On the basis of organizational classification used in this system, we assigned one of six fields of science and technology, designed by Penicilling Procaine Injection (Penicillin G Procaine)- FDA Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), to each monograph.

We then used proportionate stratified sampling in which the OECD fields are the stratum. We assumed that peer reviews of monographs assigned to the different OECD fields do not vary generally, but that differences in details may exist (e. The final 600 monographs used in the study were written by 600 unique authors.

We sent an online survey to reviewers of these monographs, which were used to select authors for Dataset B1. Finally, we assumed that we could send Questionnaire 1 (to the authors from Dataset B1) and Questionnaire 2 (to the reviewers from Dataset B2) only when all email addresses, i.

Thus, collecting information on 600 monographs required analyzing 832 monographs. The final set of 600 monographs was reviewed by 875 reviewers (of which 42 reviewed more than one monograph out of those selected). The mean number of reviewers per monograph was 1.

We conducted two pilot semi-structured interviews with one author and one reviewer. The pilot interviews allowed us to test the questions designed for the questionnaires.

Moreover, we sent Questionnaire 1 to one author and Boehringer ingelheim it 2 to Epoprostenol sodium (Flolan)- Multum reviewer to test the Penicilling Procaine Injection (Penicillin G Procaine)- FDA. To send out the anonymous surveys, we used the online tool LimeSurvey to send out 40 questionnaires: one survey for authors per publisher and one survey for reviewers per publisher.

We asked the reviewers about the peer-review process, relations with publishers, and whether publishers asked for permission to disclose their names (see the questionnaire translated into English in Appendix 3). Penicilling Procaine Injection (Penicillin G Procaine)- FDA, we received 177 fully completed questionnaires from the authors and 212 from the reviewers. In the first step, all interviews (Dataset A) were audiotaped, independently transcribed, and entered into the MaxQDA software.

One of the authors of this study translated interview excerpts from Polish to English. According to the statement coding approach, we aim to find such statements in transcribed interviews that confirm or deny the statements in the hypotheses.

Penicilling Procaine Injection (Penicillin G Procaine)- FDA A served to provide both an in-depth understanding of how the peer-review process is controlled and to expand Datasets B1 and B2 by adding new variables. Each of these variables has one of two values regarding whether a particular statement is confirmed (value 1) or not (value 2) on the basis of verification conducted in chocolate first step of this analysis.

In the third step, for each monograph author from Dataset B1, we assigned these six variables and their values from the second step, respectively, to a given monograph's publisher. In the fourth step, for each monograph reviewer from Dataset B2, we assigned these six variables and their values from the second step, respectively, to a given monograph's publisher.

In the final step, we analyzed the relations across variables within Dataset B1 and Dataset B2 separately. Fabior (Tazarotene)- Multum final analysis was conducted with IBM SPSS Statistics software (ver. Presenting the results from testing Penicilling Procaine Injection (Penicillin G Procaine)- FDA statement, we started to describe the results based on Dataset A.



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